60 HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION teaching but for taking a part in the direction of public affairs ; and in keeping with this change in their status, the wisdom they impart to their disciples has lost something of its cosmopolitan character and comprises a knowledge of the covenant made by God with the Jews. What Ecclesiasticus suggests, in fact, is a growing fusion of Greek and Jewish education which would have led ultimately to a compromise between the two tendencies in Jewish life. But in less than a decade from the writing of Ecclesi- asticus, the violent methods adopted by King Antiochus Epiphanes to force Hellenism on the Jews completely arrested the progress of the Greek influence; and when the revolt of the Maccabees was over, the spirit of nationalism was so over- whelmingly in the ascendant that the cosmopolitan education had practically disappeared. But the Greek spirit had so far prevailed that it was not possible for the new nationalism to be indifferent to education. The Jews, indeed, were now more concerned about education than ever before. The education they wished for their children, however, was not a general training in wisdom, but a training that would make the whole people devoted to the Law. " The multitude that knoweth not the Law are accursed," the Pharisees are recorded to have said, in John's Gospel. That is the fundamental con- viction of later Judaism, and it led to a great zeal in the education of the young. " We take most pains of all with the instruction of the children/* says Josephus, " and esteem the observance of the laws and the piety corresponding with them the most important affair of our whole life."* There seem to have been elementary schools in some parts of the country in the century before Christ, and according to a late tradition of doubtful worth, attendance at these schools was made compulsory on all children in Jerusalem in 75 B.C. About A.D. 65 the High Priest Joshua, the son of Paul's teacher Gamaliel, ordained that teachers of boys should be appointed in every province and town. It is a significant fact that the elementary school was called the House of the Book, indicating that the main concern was with the reading of the Book of the Law. In the House of the Book, the elements of knowledge- reading and writingówere imparted, and the children were taught not merely to know the Law but to do it. This legalistic education did not necessarily end with boyhood Apion, i, ia.